The most interesting dynamics of our planet earth is the study of its volatile nature features that has prompted the most well-known volcanoes that cover the whole part of the earth. The field of volcanology is an energizing and upright career involving the study of eruptions, examining the geographical parts of the events related with past eruptions to have the capacity to predict future occasions.
Earth is made out of lots of layers from the surface to the core. The upper layers of the earth are separated into eight structural plates across the whole earth. These plates coast upon the profoundly thick lower layer of the earth crust – asthenosphere which causes consistent movement in the structural plates and results in isostatic changes. Because of the temperature and pressure conditions in the asthenosphere area, rock and different materials become malleable.
The molten magma is constrained up through the fissure as a result of the overwhelming gas pressure amassed in asthenosphere and spout out of the vent or an opening formed whatever structural plates get joined or diverged. For example, when two structural plates separate or pull apart and impact or join with each other, they leave a crack on the earth crust where molten magma, gases, and debris emit. The presence of volcanic action can be seen near the boundaries of these plates and also relies upon a few other ecological and topographical variables.
Volcanic movement can occur in any place in the world, as on the land, underwater and even beneath the snow. The structure of lava is the accumulation of molten magma, gases, powder, and dust, and is found as a dome, conical slope or mountain, or crack in the crust of the earth layer magma erupts. Mostly dull smoke, ash, pumice and rock dust are regurgitated of the volcanoes. craters are seen on the summit of the volcanoes connecting with reservoirs of molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth and this ousted magma is called magma when it reaches the surface of the earth.
Magma that streams out of the crevices can be thick and moderate moving or thin and fast-moving and is so high in temperature it can instantly burn anything that comes in contact with. As magma reaches the surface, it starts to cool and becomes solidified minerals. The chemical composition of magma comprises components like silicon, oxygen, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and titanium.
Volcanoes are grouped into three classifications based on their status – extinct, dormant and active. A dormant volcano will again never erupt and a number of years have elapsed since the last emission. A dormant volcano has not ejected in 2000 years and is at present dormant and may emit again later on. An active volcano has of recent erupted and is still showing signs that it may soon erupt. Aside from these, there are various kinds of volcanoes depending upon their particular landforms and the style of eruptions. The shield volcanoes, magma vaults, stratovolcanoes, super-volcanoes and submarine volcanoes.